Dublin Core: The Road from Metadata Formats to Linked Data
August 25, 2010

Below are listed questions that were submitted during the joint NISO/DCMI Dublin Core webinar. Answers from the presenters will be added when available. Not all the questions could be responded to during the live webinar, so those that could not be addressed at the time are also included below.


  • Dublin Core in the Early Web Revolution
    Makx Dekkers, Managing Director and CEO, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Ltd. (DCMI)
  • What Makes the Linked Data Approach Different
    Thomas Baker, Chief Information Officer, DCMI Ltd.
  • Designing Interoperable Metadata on Linked Data Principles
    Thomas Baker, Chief Information Officer, DCMI Ltd.
  • Bridging the Gap to the Linked Data Cloud
    Makx Dekkers, Managing Director and CEO, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Ltd. (DCMI)

Feel free to contact us if you have any additional questions about library, publishing, and technical services standards, standards development, or if you have have suggestions for new standards, recommended practices, or areas where NISO should be engaged.

NISO/DCMI Webinar Questions and Answers

  1. Does the URI for the book represent: A full-text online version of the book? The concept of the book?

    URIs are the "words" of the Linked Data "language".  URIs used as "predicates" (aka "properties", characterizing relationships between resources) are like verbs.  URIs used as identifiers for resources that are the subject or object of statements are like nouns.

    As in natural language, names can be given to anything -- including either a full-text online version of a book or the concept of a book.  Users of the "FRBR" categories Work, Expression, Manifestation, Item (in the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, a model used in the library world) might need to coin URIs for each of these entities, because in the library catalog context these distinctions are important. Others may not need, or even understand, such distinctions.

    The book examples A and B might reasonably be interpreted to be about "manifestations" (in FRBR terms), even if the data does not say that.  In an environment with full support of FRBR, related "works", "expressions", even individual "items" could be identified with URIs and described.


  2. Is a URI a link to a file? If so, isn't there a danger the file might become unavailable?

    We should mention here in passing that Web architecture has evolved mechanisms to respond to requests to "GET" a resource identified by a URI in ways that say either "the URI identifies an information resource, and here it is" or "the URI identifies something that is described in an information over there" (with an automatic redirect). In other words, the Dublin Core element "Contributor" and the person "Barack Obama" are not web pages, but a user clicking on URIs identifying these things will be taken, using redirection, to a Web page describing those things.

    It is "best practice" to make URIs resolvable to files, and when memory institutions coin those URIs, there is an expectation that they will remain resolvable to information about the URIs (i.e., to files) over the medium and long term. That said, "resolvability" to a file is not an absolute precondition to using a given URI as a unique identifier. We could still continue to use the word "toaster" even if, against all reasonable probability, the word were to disappear from our dictionaries. By analogy, the file describing the BBC Wildlife Ontology could disappear, but as long as the BBC Internet domain exists and the URI for "species name" is not re-purposed for something else, the URI itself could continue to function as a unique property name.

    Ensuring the longevity and resolvability of URIs is, in Tom's opinion, one of the key challenges facing cultural memory institutions in the web page.

  3. How can you get the linked data from the Beeb?

    In the BBC examples shown in the talk, the Linked Data corresponding to the two web pages:
    can be seen at:
    Some browsers, such as Firefox, can display this data nicely, or the URIs can be plugged into an RDF validator such as the one available at for viewing as a graph. More information is available at

  4. Can anyone use these verbs/URIs, or can only BBC use their BBC verbs?

    The squid page uses eighteen properties (i.e., "verbs", predicates) defined by BBC. Seventeen of these are defined the BBC Wildlife Ontology ( Notice that the ontology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License, and everyone is invited to make free use of the work. For example, anyone is free to use the URI for the property "species name" ( in their own metadata.

  5. Is there a particular RDF graph visualizer you could recommend?

    W3C provides an RDF Validation Service ( where you can paste in (or point to) RDF data in XML as input and see triples and graphs as output. Google on "RDF validator" or "RDF visualizer" and you will find several more alternatives. Other tools, such as "rapper" (, will freely convert RDF data between any two of several interchangeable formats, such as: RDF/XML, Turtle (a syntax more readable than RDF/XML), and RDF triples, and including (for output only) GraphViz DOT format (, which can be used by general-purpose visualization software to generate graphs.

  6. Could you review very simply again the basic concept of the grammar of RDF? And the concept of "triples"?

    For a general introduction, see

    Tom thinks of RDF as the grammar for a "language for Linked Data". "URIs" are the words of that language. The notions of "Property" and "Class", also expressed using URIs, are grammatical categories in that language, corresponding roughly to Verbs and Nouns. "RDF statements" are sentences in that language. RDF statements are about "individual" members of a class, a bit like "toaster" is a particular noun. By default, every individual is a member of the generic class Resource, but "toaster" might also be seen as a member of a more specific class such as "kitchen appliance".

    The analogy to natural language is not perfect, but Tom finds it helpful as a first approximation.

  7. In Dublin Core (and RDF) the "atoms" of information are simple, but what we need to do is often complex. For example, we need to combine data from different vocabularies, or represent different aspects of a thing (e.g., FRBR work, expression, manifestation, etc.). Is your work with RDF informing any efforts to develop machine-actionable frameworks for expressing description sets and application profiles?

    Taken individually, the atoms that make up our bodies are simple too. However, when organized into DNA, cells, and organs, they constitute incredibly complex structures, even brains. By a very rough analogy, there is no inherent limit to the complexity of data structures that can be expressed using triples.

    A DCMI working group is contributing to the development an RDF expression of RDA, and IFLA working groups are developing RDF expressions of FRBR. As Tom suggested on the call, a healthy linguistic ecosystem for Linked Data needs both generic, pidgin-like vocabularies like the classic fifteen-element Dublin Core; specialized vocabularies such as the BBC Wildlife Ontology; and links between vocabularies to bridge the gap between specialists and the general public. This is pretty much the same as with natural languages in the real world.

    DCMI's work on an Abstract Model ( and Description Set Profile language of constraints ( has been motivated precisely by the goal of specifying, as you put it, "machine-actionable frameworks for expressing description sets and application profiles."

  8. Can you explain the "placeholder" (RDF blank nodes) concept further?

    In modeling terms, there is a subtle difference between saying:

    This book has an author, 'Barack Obama'.


    This book has an author, whose name is 'Barack Obama'.

    To us humans, these sentences are pretty much interchangeable. In modeling terms, however, the second sentence is more explicit. Using this pattern, for example, one might go on to say:

    This book has an author, whose date of birth is '1961-08-04'.

    The placeholder for the author, as the object of a statement, is either blank (if we do not have a URI identifying Obama the person), or -- if do we have one -- it can be a URI such as

    Bear in mind that this data expression will normally be formed by metadata software "under the hood". A human creating metadata using a Web form might type "Barack Obama", or choose "Barack Obama" from a pull-down menu, without needing to know that the underlying software is expressing that information using a URI or a blank node.

    See also

  9. You mentioned the BBC uses linked data. Can you give an example of a library (besides Library of Congress) using linked data?

    Makx mentioned a few during the webinar, notably the Royal Library of Sweden (, a pioneer of Linked Data in the library world. But many others have projects underway, such as the Hungarian National Library and British Library ( Just yesterday I learned about a regional initiative of libraries in the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate in collaboration with Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. A W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group ( has been chartered for one year to collect information on such initiatives in the library world and to identify areas where further research is needed. (Full disclosure: Tom is a co-chair of that activity.)

    Another particularly interesting initiative for libraries is the VIAF project (Virtual International Authority File), a joint project of OCLC, Library of Congress, and the national libraries of Germany and France, with participation of many more national libraries and other organizations (see

  10. Do you of know of any examples of libraries managing metadata as triples other than UK and Swedish national libraries?

    I take this question to be whether any libraries using Linked Data manage that data using a triples store -- one of the options Makx presented. To be honest, we do not know, but how libraries manage their data internally is more of concern to their IT managers -- issues of efficiency, etc -- than to the consumers of their linked data. Consumers do not need to understand the workflow in the kitchen in order to judge the quality of what they are served.

  11. Can you give an example of known limitations or problems with Linked Data as currently defined?

    Well, it's a new language and there are not many "fluent speakers", so grammatical mistakes are an inevitable part of the collective learning curve. Also, conventions for publishing "application profiles" (in order to share patterns for describing things) and mechanisms for recognizing common patterns in data on the Web using search engines (in order to follow emerging practice) are still evolving.

    Indeed, the language for linked data is itself still evolving. For example, triples do not declare their own source, so the provenance of metadata statements needs to be tracked locally in databases (as in "these statements are from BBC" and "these are from Library of Congress"). In the near-to-medium-term future, therefore, "triples" may evolve into "quads" -- four-part statements along the lines of:

    Subject - Predicate - Object - SourceOfStatement

    One issue that can be seen as a problem is that the Linked Data approach is so very flexible - anyone can define their own vocabulary. Now, if everyone declares their own vocabulary instead of using common, trusted, well-known vocabularies where possible, then in order to achieve interoperability, there will be an additional need to create (and maintain!) equivalence relations, such as sameAs or similarTo, between terms in as many different vocabularies. To avoid this, organizations like W3C and DCMI promote the use of well-known vocabularies like Dublin Core, FOAF, and SKOS.

  12. RDF dissolves metadata into a store of triple statements. Does RDF still have a conceptual place for descriptive records -- organized compilations of statements?

    An excellent question! A key objective of the DCMI Abstract Model, first published in 2005 and updated in 2007, was to create an abstract syntax for organizing Statements into Descriptions (each of a single resource), grouped into Description Sets, in turn instantiated as metadata Records.

    In the meantime, the RDF community has been developing the notion of a Named Graph -- a particular set of statements grouped together and given a name (i.e., URI).

    The notion of a metadata Record is, and will remain, important for managing information in many institutional contexts. Supporting such constructs is seen as a high priority by the RDF community, so Tom thinks it is likely that a standardized approach to Named Graphs (or Description Sets) will emerge in the medium-term future.

  13. In the BBC example, how much of what we saw is automatically generated? Don't they have to know where they are going for what, how much they grab, and how it will be displayed on the page? That all sounds kinda manual....

    We do not know in detail how this is implemented at BBC; a high-level description can be found at It appears they use the "Muddy" software tool ( However, Tom suspects that pages are being generated by templates, perhaps built into a Content Management System, which automatically search the linked data for the latest information on particular topics -- in effect, "canned searches". At any rate, BBC cites efficiency as one of the key benefits of its approach. They write: "the system gives us a flexibility and a maintainability benefit: our web site becomes our API. Considering our feeds as an integral part of building a web site also means that they are very cheap to generate: they are just a different view of our data."

  14. The "open web" is free, but drives a huge economy based on advertising. Will something similar happen with Linked Data? Selling of rights to URIs?

    Makx mentioned the International DOI Foundation as an example of an organization with a business model around the notion of managed URIs. As we emphasized in the talk, Linked Data is not necessarily Linked Open Data; it can also be Linked Enterprise Data, where the data may be hidden behind a corporate firewall. It seems probable that there will always be a visible, "open Web", and a hidden "deep Web", access to which is controlled or sold. We expect that there will be substantial amounts of public content on the Open Web from government, education, libraries, and research.

  15. Is there a relation to the "Semantic Web" idea?

    Yes -- to the extent that many people now use the two terms interchangeably. Linked Data is based on Semantic Web principles. Before RDF was the language of Linked Data, it was (and remains) the language of the Semantic Web. In a way, Linked Data is the real-world fulfillment of the promise of the Semantic Web. The idea of Semantic Web was seen by many in circa 2000 as a sophisticated, highly engineered solution involving artificial intelligence -- e.g., letting one's smart phone find a dentist nearby and schedule an appointment automatically. It was a vision that sounded complicated and far in the future.

    When the idea of Linked Data was launched in 2006, in contrast, the benefits were immediately visible in the form of data integrated across the boundaries of particular silos. This is the simpler, more concrete idea that took off, while the older, more ambitious vision of Semantic Web still remains a distant goal. The older vision was seen as focusing more on technology, whereas Linked Data shifted the emphasis to useful content. Technically speaking, however, Semantic Web -- RDF -- provided the foundation for Linked Data.